Wondering what happens to hard water when it interacts with soap? Why is soap less effective with hard water? And what is soap scum?
We’ve answered all these questions and more in this guide to hard water with soap.
📌 Key Takeaways:
- Soap reacts with hard water to form a scummy residue.
- Each soap molecule has a polar head and a non-polar tail, and hardness minerals react with the fatty acids in soap and hinder its ability to lift dirt from surfaces.
- The best way to prevent this reaction is to install a soft water system. You can also use soaps and synthetic detergents that are designed for use with hard water.
Table of Contents
- 🤔 What Happens if Soap is Used with Hard Water?
- 🧼 Why Doesn’t Hard Water Lather with Soap?
- 🔎 Does Hard Water Affect the Cleaning Capacity of Soap?
- 🧴 Does Hard Water Require a Lot of Soap?
- 🧐 What Soap is Good for Hard Water?
- 📤 Can Soap Remove Hard Water?
- 🚫 How to Prevent Issues with Hard Water and Soap
- 📑 Final Word
🤔 What Happens if Soap is Used with Hard Water?
When soap is used with hard water, the hard water properties reduce soap’s lathering ability and form a grey, scummy residue called soap scum.
To understand what happens to soap with hard water, let’s look in more detail at what hard water is.
Hard water has a high concentration of minerals – namely calcium and magnesium ions. These minerals react with soap, forming insoluble compounds known as soap scum or soap curd.
Soap molecules have a polar head and a non-polar tail. The polar head is attracted to water molecules, while the polar tail is attracted to dirt and grease. This enables the polar heads to surround the dirt, while the polar tails form structures called micelles around the dirt, lifting it off the surface (i.e. your skin if you’re washing your hands with soap).
When you use soap with hard water, the reaction between the calcium and magnesium ions with the fatty acids in the soap form soap scum, which doesn’t easily dissolve and produces a precipitate or film. The soap molecules are then unable to create micelles as effectively, resulting in a poorer lather and a reduced ability to remove oils and dirt from surfaces.
The result is that you’ll end up with a sticky curd or scum when you lather soap in hard water, which may leave a residue behind on your skin, laundry, or dishes.
🧼 Why Doesn’t Hard Water Lather with Soap?
The reason why hard water doesn’t lather with soap is because of its soap scum production.
Soap scum interferes with the ability of soap to create a lather. Rather than forming a rich foam, the soap molecules become become trapped in the scummy substance, so they’re unable to effectively clean surfaces.
Hard water minerals bind to the molecules that make up the soap, preventing them from interacting properly (remember, in a normal situation, soap molecules surround grease and dirt and “dissolve” them).
The result is that soap produces minimal lather in hard water, and its cleaning action is compromised. For this reason, you’ll probably find that you have to use more soap to achieve the desired lather, or that no amount of soap produces the sudsy lather that you’re looking to create.
🔎 Does Hard Water Affect the Cleaning Capacity of Soap?
Yes, hard water does affect the cleaning capacity of soap. Water hardness minerals decrease the efficiency of soap, reducing its ability to pull dirt and oils off a surface and carry them away with the water.
Soap scum also clings to surfaces (like your skin and hair) after washing, giving them a sticky, dry feel and making them feel less clean.
Some sources also say that soap scum adheres to surfaces and causes germs to stick to them, but we couldn’t find any scientific evidence to support this claim.
🧴 Does Hard Water Require a Lot of Soap?
Whether you’re washing your hands, hair, clothes, or dishes, you’ll probably find that you need more soap for the job.
For instance, if your shampoo bottle tells you to use a nickel-sized amount of formula on your hair, but if you have hard water, you might need to use twice or even three times this amount to work up a good lather.
Hard water requires a lot of soap because its dissolved minerals reduce the soap’s ability to lather, which in turn reduces its cleaning capacity.
Let’s say your hard water reduces the lather formation of your washing detergent by 50%. You’d have to use 50% more detergent – e.g. 1.5 scoops rather than 1 scoop – to achieve the same results.
As a result, you’ll end up spending more money on soap every time you use it, which adds up.
🧐 What Soap is Good for Hard Water?
For hand washing, liquid soap is better than bar soap with hard water because they’re less likely to mix with dissolved calcium and magnesium salts and should have better cleaning results.
You can also look for soaps, shampoos, and other shower products that contain chelating agents, which bind to magnesium and calcium ions, preventing them from affecting the soap’s frothing/foaming ability.
You can also buy synthetic detergent that’s designed for use in hard water and prevents water hardness mineral deposits while preserving fabric quality.
📤 Can Soap Remove Hard Water?
No, soap alone won’t remove hard water stains from your fixtures and surfaces.
Hard water deposits are known as limescale or mineral stains. They’re chalky, rough, and grey-white in color, and are near-impossible to remove without specialist cleaners.
The best way to remove hard water deposits is with a vinegar and baking soda solution. The reaction between the vinegar and baking soda should be powerful enough to lift the stains.
You could also use a chemical cleaner, like a high-acidity cleaner, to get similar results. Just make sure to wear protective gear, air out the room you’re cleaning, and follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.
Will soap at least remove soap scum? Not effectively. Since soap is the reason why insoluble scum sticks sticks to your surfaces in the first place, using more soap to remove the scum isn’t a smart solution. You’re better off using a bathroom cleaner that can cut through dirt and scum.
🚫 How to Prevent Issues with Hard Water and Soap
Here are two ways to prevent issues with hard water and soap at home:
Use Soaps & Detergents Designed For Hard Water
One simple way to prevent issues with hard water and soap is to buy soaps and detergents that are designed for use with hard water.
Follow our tips in the “What Soap Is Good For Hard Water?” section. You can also look for soaps that use ingredients called surfactants, which are less affected by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions and are able to lather more effectively, so you can achieve a proper clean even in hard water conditions.
Will these soaps and detergents solve your hard water and soap issues entirely? No – you’ll probably still notice some soap scum, but you should at least be able to improve lather with soap and reduce the amount of soap scum produced.
Install a Water Softener
The best permanent solution to hard water and soap issues is to install a water softener unit.
The only way to completely prevent soap scum and issues with lathering is to use soft water in your plumbing, and a water softener will do this for you.
Water softeners produce soft water by exchanging calcium and magnesium with sodium ions in a chemical reaction called ion exchange. Sodium salt is unable to form scale and don’t interact with soap molecules or affect their lather.
You can install a water softener at your main water pipe’s point of entry into your home, where it’ll soften the water before it travels around your plumbing to your various fixtures.
Soap lathers much better with softened water, and the sodium salts present ensure that there’s no soap scum or scale formation, so you’ll achieve cleaner results with less soap.
Soft water has a few other benefits, too: it won’t clog your appliances, it makes cleaning easier, and you won’t have issues with your hair and skin health due to the lack of magnesium and calcium in your water.
📑 Final Word
The idea that hard water reacts with soap isn’t a myth – there’s a scientific reason why this happens.
There’s a big difference between hard and soft water when it comes to soap usage – namely the effectiveness of the soap in producing a lather and how much soap you need to get your skin, clothes, and dishes properly clean.
You can use soaps that are designed to work with hard water, but the best long-term solution is to install a water softening system and enjoy softened water throughout your home.