Drinking water from a fridge is generally safe. The water that comes from your fridge is the same as your kitchen faucet drinking water, so if your tap water is safe, then your refrigerator water should technically also be safe.
Filtered refrigerator water should be safe to drink, but this depends on the filter’s age and quality.
A high-quality refrigerator filter can improve drinking water safety by removing traces of common contaminants, including chlorine, pesticides, PFAS, and some heavy metals.
Generally, refrigerator water is safer than normal tap water if the water is treated by a fridge filter.
First of all, since fridge dispenser water comes from the same water source as the rest of your home’s drinking water, the safety of your refrigerator water depends on the safety of the source water.
Regardless of the filter’s capabilities, it should, at the very least, improve your refrigerator water quality somewhat, making it marginally safer to drink than your home’s normal tap water.